HVAC installers provide an extremely valuable service: keeping them safe from the extreme heat and extreme cold of the seasons and helping them feel comfortable in their home or office. This job is especially important to the good people here in Texas who face indescribably hot conditions during the summer.
Not many people have the skills that heating and air conditioning installers have, making them a valuable member of the community they work in. As an HVAC professional, people will depend on you and the skills and expertise you possess to get them through the season.
It is for this reason that knowing 90% of air conditioning installations are done incorrectly is such a disheartening statistic. Even with all respect and expectations customers hold for the profession, almost every installation is not completed to the high standards that HVAC professionals were trained for and should hold themselves accountable to. To be frank, it is shameful.
However, it doesn’t have to be that way. As an incoming HVAC student, a recent graduate of The Training Center of Air Conditioning and Heating, or just someone who is interested in the profession, you have the power to buck this trend and learn from the mistakes of those that have come before you.
Here are six of the most common air conditioning violations that occur in the field so you can learn to avoid them.
No Installation Permit
Acquiring the proper permits prior to air conditioning should be one of the very first steps in the process, yet it is often overlooked by both parties involved in the installation: the customer and the contractor. Most homeowners will know they need permits for major home renovations, but many don’t realize that they need one for air conditioning installation as well.
Permits are important for a number of reasons. They not only ensure the safety of those working on the equipment, but they also ensure that the equipment being installed is up to energy and environmental standards. Contractors can obtain the necessary permits on behalf of the homeowner and they can also be obtained by the homeowner themselves.
Installing without permits is often overlooked by homeowners who don’t know and contractors who don’t care – but both should concern themselves about it. Installing an air conditioner without the proper permits isn’t just dangerous but can result in serious fines. As a HVAC contractor, never take an air conditioning installation job without the proper documentation first.
Failure to Perform Manual J, Manual S, or Manual D
No two air conditioning system installations are the same. Each and every system requires very precise calculations and adjustments to ensure they are working properly and efficiently for the environment they are being installed in. Three calculations of particular importance that need to be done with every single installation are Manual J, Manual S, and Manual D calculations. However, these calculations are not consistently done, or done correctly, during many air conditioner installations.
Manual J is a calculation that needs to be done to properly size the system to provide optimal cooling based on the size of the home it is being installed in along with other factors. An air conditioner installed in a larger home will need to be adjusted differently than one in a smaller house in order to keep every room and every person cool.
Manual S then considers the geographical location of the system and the average temperature highs it will have to perform in. Also known as design temperature, an air conditioner needs to be calibrated to effectively and efficiently work under the conditions it will experience 99% of the season.
Manual D builds off the previous calculations by determining the proper sizing of the ducts needed to properly distribute air without underworking or overperforming.
Not performing these calculations causes air conditioners to not perform efficiently. If the system is oversized it distributes too much air during each cycle which can spike energy usage and inflate monthly energy bills for the customer in addition to ineffectively controlling humidity. Undersized air conditioners will not be able to keep the customer cool. Both instances make for unhappy customers and the need for unnecessary service calls to correct the system’s settings.
Furnace flue pipe touching combustibles
It is a shame that this needs to be said time and again, but because this is one of the most common air conditioning installation violations done here it goes: never put something very hot in contact with something flammable or combustible!
Every HVAC system has a flue pipe that vents hot exhaust air outside of the home it is installed in. Not only is this air warm, it can also contain carbon monoxide, an odorless and tasteless gas that can be deadly if it is allowed to circulate into a home’s air supply. Proper ventilation of the flue is an important part of HVAC installation, but so is the proper installation and accounting for the surrounding area.
When installed in homes, flues are often installed around wood from the subfloor or the home’s frame, which can be inflamed by the warm air and hot metal duct if the proper clearances are not accounted for. Suficit to say this isn’t just a mistake that costs money to fix, it is a potentially deadly one.
Heating equipment is the number one cause of house fires in the U.S and accounted for 19% of house fire deaths from 2014 to 2018. When installing a flue pipe or servicing a piece of equipment that may cause you to move or adjust the pipe, make sure the proper safety measures are taken before you leave.
Service access to equipment not accessible
Air conditioners need regular care, attention, and servicing to ensure they run properly for as long as possible. However, servicing the system properly can be made much more difficult (both for you and anyone else who might work on it in the future) if it has not been installed with the proper accessibility.
Here is the long and short of the situation: if it is hard to get to the system it is going to be hard to service it. This means that minor, easy-to-fix issues can get overlooked and become serious ones, cleaning is harder to do thoroughly, and the healthy lifespan of the system can be drastically shortened.
When you are installing an air conditioning system, make sure you are following the proper NEC guidelines for working space of three feet on each side of the equipment. This will allow that yourself and anyone else who needs to work on it has proper access.
Air conditioning installation isn’t always done right. But it doesn’t have to be that way! Understanding where other installers fall short is the first step in training a new generation of air conditioning installers who are hard working, thorough, and masters of the trade.
That is our mission here at the Training Center of Heating and Air Conditioning. We are based in Houston, Texas and our founder Chris Walters spent his HVAC career practicing in Texas. Through our experiences working in this industry in this state, we know exactly what our students need to know in order to have a successful career upon graduation.
If you are interested in beginning your HVAC career with the best training available, learn more about our upcoming classes and get started today!
Here at the Training Center of Air Conditioning and Heating, our students come from all walks of life, different backgrounds, and have different personalities. But, they all come with one single goal: they want to begin a rewarding HVAC career.
While everyone has the same goal when they first begin to pursue their interest in a career in our industry, not everyone has the same expectations or understanding of the career that lies ahead of them.
If you are beginning, or considering, a new career in HVAC, here are five important things you need to know before you start.
Training is required
One of the biggest appeals of a career in HVAC is its availability. You don’t need to go to graduate school. You don’t need a college degree. You don’t need any particular prerequisites skills outside of a hard-working attitude and a willingness to apply yourself. However, just because the level of entry for an HVAC career is low doesn’t mean anyone can just step in and do the job. Training is a requirement if you want to succeed in the industry.
While training for an HVAC career does not involve a four-year program as you’ll find at most universities, training courses offered by programs like ours at The Training Center of Heating and Air Conditioning will prepare you with the technical and professional skills needed to be successful in your new career. Graduating from a training course will also award you with various certifications that are necessary to practice in some states and will always help give you a leg up in the hiring process.
You will often work in harsh conditions
Life as an HVAC technician or installer isn’t always the most glamorous. You will be spending your days outdoors, usually on a roof for commercial service calls, in the elements. Here in Texas, the days you are busiest are usually the hottest days of the year. You’ll often be sweaty, hot, and tired.
What this means is that if you are looking for a career where you spend your time indoors all day cooped up in a cubicle or staring at a computer screen all day, HVAC isn’t it. The day-to-day of a technician requires hard work and endurance. While this isn’t meant to try and weed anyone out or scare people off from a rewarding career in this industry, it is important for anyone looking to pursue this kind of career to know what they are getting into.
People skills are just as important as technical skills
The HVAC world isn’t all about fixing air conditioners and tuning up furnaces. While the technical skills you’ll learn during training and apply every day during your work are obviously important and a big part of the job, there are other equally important skills to possess to be successful, such as customer service.
The reason a customer calls you is that they are having a bad day. Their air conditioner may have just busted on the hottest day of the year and they are looking at a large bill for a replacement or repair. Not everyone you deal with is going to be necessarily happy to see you. Being able to relate, communicate, and interact with your customers respectfully, fairly, and honestly is important for keeping tempers down, keeping customers happy, and building a positive reputation within your community.
The details are important
Just like any other career working on something intricate like rebuilding car engines in an auto shop, HVAC installations and repairs require finesse, focus, and an emphasis on attention to detail. Repairs and installations in the HVAC industry require dealing with often hazardous materials like electricity, fire, and refrigerant. A lack of care or attention can result in serious injury to yourself or those around you.
HVAC technicians also are responsible for very complex tasks like electrical wiring, brazing, and working with very small components of the units they service. One misstep, whether you skip a step in the process or are not thorough in your work can lead to not completing your job properly. This leaves your customers unsatisfied, unhappy, and you look unprofessional. Focus and attention to detail to do your job the right way the first time is a must.
There is a sea of opportunity waiting
The job can be difficult, but that shouldn’t deter anyone away interested in pursuing an HVAC career. Why? Well, the most important thing to know about the HVAC industry is it is an industry filled with opportunities. Right now, the world is facing a decline in available workers in many skilled trade industries including HVAC. That means for those who are willing to get their certification, there is almost a guarantee that you will be able to find a great job and pave your own way for professional growth, like starting your own company.
Not only are there plenty of available jobs in the industry, but there is also an especially large need and opportunity for women to succeed in the industry as well. Regardless of gender, in the wake of the coronavirus as well, the world needs hardworking and knowledgeable HVAC technicians now more than ever.
Ready to start? The Training Center for Heating and Air Conditioning has classes running throughout the year! Check out our schedule and find the next session that works best for you.
The beautiful thing about beginning your career as an HVAC technician is that you don’t need any previous experience or knowledge. At the Training Center for Heating and Air Conditioning, our classes cover the absolute basics, so students of all knowledge levels can be on equal footing. All you need is a good work ethic and a willingness to learn.
That being said, for anybody considering education and training in heating and cooling can certainly benefit from familiarizing themselves with some important elements of working in HVAC.
One of the most important things to understand during your HVAC training is the language and terminology. HVAC installation and repair incorporates many common electrical terms that you may have heard before or run into during previous science classes in school. Understanding these terms is crucial for HVAC technicians and beginning your education with knowledge of them can get you started off on the right foot.
Here are some common electrical terms HVAC technicians need to be familiar with and what they mean. Each of these terms relates to different materials and parts of a heating or cooling system that relate to the transfer of electricity.
An electrical conductor is any kind of material that allows electricity to flow easily through it with little to no resistance. Certain metals like copper, aluminum, silver, and gold are all terrific conductors of electricity. This is why many of the wires used in HVAC equipment are made of these materials. This is also a great reason why practicing extreme safety precautions when working with live wires.
An electrical resistor is any material or component in the electrical circuit that resists the flow of electricity, limiting the amount of electricity that passes through them at any given time. Resistors are important because without them limiting electrical flow to motors, coils, lights, and heat elements, these components would become overloaded with electricity and more quickly burn out or overload causing a loss of efficiency and creating potential hazards.
An electrical capacitor stores electricity for short periods. Many HVAC systems have dual capacitors, a start capacitor and a run capacitor. The start capacitor provides the electrical power needed to get the compressor or fan motor of the heating and cooling system started up. The run capacitor, on the other hand, in turn, supplies the compressor or motor the energy it requires to keep them running.
An electrical insulator is a material or component of a heating and cooling system that does not allow electricity to flow through it. Wires and thermal pipes in an HVAC system are equipped with insulating coverings to prevent the loss of energy and heat so the unit can run more efficiently.
Now don’t think that knowing the meaning of these common electrical terms makes you an expert. There are still plenty of other important terms you’ll need to know as you continue your HVAC education. However, for folks looking to start their journey without much past experience, understanding these terms can get you off to a good start.
Ready to begin your HVAC career? Call the Training Center for Heating and Air Conditioning today to learn about our upcoming classes and reserve your spot today.
If you have spent any time around HVAC, either in a classroom or just chatting up an HVAC technician, there is a decent chance you’ve heard the expression “beer can cold.” “Beer can cold” is an expression that originated in the early days of air conditioning, back in the ‘50s and ‘60s. It was created to describe the temperature at which an air conditioning system has been properly charged with refrigerant.
The idea is if you were to grab a properly charged suction line it would be as cold as a cold beer can. It is also a completely irrelevant, incorrect, and outdated expression that shouldn’t be applied anywhere near modern-day HVAC. In fact, if you ever hear a fellow HVAC technician using that term earnestly turn the other direction and run away.
“Beer can cold” is an expression that no longer holds any relevance for HVAC technicians and should be left in the past. If you are an HVAC technician or in training to become one, here are three reasons to forget everything you may know about “beer can cold.”
What is “beer can cold” anyway?
One of the biggest arguments against “beer can cold” is that in a very precise industry this kind of measurement is not even remotely precise. What is the exact temperature of “beer can cold?” You can technically drink beer at any range of cold temperatures and different folks may have a different take on what the ideal temperature of a cold beer is.
Also, a beer out of a cooler full of ice maybe 32 degrees and one out of the fridge maybe 35 to 38 degrees, but they feel relatively the same to the touch. Air conditioners today are manufactured with distinct specifications on charging temperatures, and the tools HVAC technicians have at our disposal today make taking accurate temperatures much simpler than relying on getting a relative temperature by hand.
“Beer can cold” is misleading
Extremely hot working conditions are very common for HVAC technicians, especially here in Houston. If you were to grab a suction line that is about 50 degrees on a 100-degree day outside, that suction line is going to feel extraordinarily cold even though it is only 50 degrees. Now, if you grab that same suction line when it is only 60 degrees outside, it is not going to feel anywhere near as cold. Also, if there is a lot of moisture in the air, the suction line will be wet and feel colder than a dry line at the same temperature.
Aside from not having an exact reading for “beer can cold,” taking a temperature by hand can lead to horribly inaccurate and misleading readings that can lead to serious errors during installation and repair. Using this method on the job will likely cause you to make serious mistakes.
It’s not the ‘50s anymore
The truth about “Beer can cold” is that even though it is an expression that began in the ‘50s, it was an outdated expression even back then. So much about air conditioning in the past 60 years. Back then, compressors were oversized, coils had a lot of extra space, and fan motors were higher in horsepower. Flexibility in the charging of refrigerants was not a significant issue since a pound over or under would not cause any drastic changes.
Today’s air conditioning units are built much differently. Units are built to be just big enough, their coils are not oversized and their compressors are barely large enough. This all makes the efficiency rating of units higher, but also means the charge of refrigerant has to be within 2 ounces of the correct amount. Unlike the old days, air conditioners require a much higher level of precision.
The mantra of “beer can cold” is not only outdated, it was truthfully never a helpful or accurate reading to begin with. Here at the Training Center of Heating and Air Conditioning, we teach our students how to use the advanced techniques and tools at their disposal to do the job and charge the air conditioners they work on the right way, leaving “beer can cool” where it belongs: In your hands after a hard day’s work and you are relaxing at home in your hammock.
Learn more about enrolling in upcoming classes at the Training Center of Heating and Air Conditioning here.
HVAC technicians live a fulfilling and rewarding profession, perfect for anyone looking for a skilled profession in the trades. But, as rewarding of a career as it is, it is a job where professionals need to maintain vigilance at all times and practice extreme safety at all times from the potential hazards they may face.
The nature of a HVAC tech’s job can put them in some precarious positions due to where they work, how they work, and the equipment they work with. Both current and aspiring HVAC technicians as well as those looking to operate their own HVAC business need to be aware at all times of the hazards they and their employees face during the course of their work day and how they can best take the necessary steps to avoid them and be as safe as possible at all times.
During the dog days of summer here in Houston, life can be a little rough for air conditioning technicians. They work long hours in hot conditions running from job to job with often very little downtown in between. All of this can put a great strain on technicians and cause a tremendous amount of fatigue. When HVAC technicians become fatigued they run the risk of making mistakes or losing alertness which won’t just result in poor service and installation but can also put them and their customers at risk of harm from many of the hazards we are about to cover, potentially falling asleep at the wheel between jobs, and dehydration.
It is important during the course of a work day for HVAC technicians and the company that employs them to take the necessary precautions to avoid fatigue to ensure safety and performance. Technicians need to make sure they stay hydrated throughout the day, take breaks for rest when necessary, don’t skip over meals, and alert their employers or dispatches when rest is necessary. HVAC employers also need to be aware of their workers’ needs and schedule their jobs accordingly.
Particularly when working on commercial heating and cooling systems, HVAC technicians will often find themselves in some fairly high environments whether they are on top of a roof or on a ladder accessing ductwork or vents in a ceiling or attic space. In these situations, the dangers of falling from a high location is very real and can result in serious bodily harm.
Any technician that will be working at heights needs to practice extreme caution. Always check and double check the location of ladders and scaffolding you need to use to ensure it is sturdy and secure to use. Always have a spotter when you can and in extremely high environments, the use of a safety harness should always be insisted upon.
In between the open flame used in some heating equipment, the natural heat that air conditioning and furnaces can produce, equipment sitting in the hot sun, and soldering (which is a practice that is sometimes used during HVAC installations and repairs) the average HVAC technician has no shortage of opportunities to burn themselves both mildly and severely.
Practicing the utmost caution around hot or potentially hot equipment is a must for technicians, especially here in Houston. Always try and make sure equipment is cool before you start working on it, but also be sure to wear the appropriate protection of heat-resistant gloves when it is appropriate for extra protection. Even on a hot day, long sleeves can help protect your arms from incidental contact with hot objects.
HVAC work involves frequently interacting with electrical equipment and wiring. One false step can mean you face harmful electrocution. Not only is electrocution harmful to the technician, but if fatigue is also a factor, a live exposed wire left unattended could also mean harm to the person they are servicing.
Electric shock can happen in an instant, and it can be difficult to tell if a wire is live or not. Therefore, safety against electrocution should be one of the primary concerns of HVAC technicians at all times. Always carry the proper equipment necessary to test the charge of wires before interacting with them and always be sure to wear protective gloves when working with electricity. If necessary, you may also consider shutting off the power to the area you are working on prior to beginning service as an extra precaution.
Safety is a very important aspect of being a successful HVAC technician and safety is also a primary focus of what we teach here at the Training Center for Heating and Air Conditioning. Our instructor, Chris Walters, takes an extensive amount of time dedicated to teaching and reinforcing proper HVAC safety to avoid these common HVAC hazards.
Learn more about enrollment in a future class today.
A home with natural gas hookups likely uses gas to power the furnace as well as the stove. In your HVAC career, you’ll encounter a fair number of gas heat furnaces that need repairs or maintenance. Since these heating systems work quite differently from electrical furnaces, it’s important to know how both should typically work and the crucial differences in their makeup and functions.
A gas heat furnace has its pros and cons compared to an electric heating system, as well as significant differences in energy efficiency and how the system works. A gas furnace also has the potential to be dangerous to the occupants of the home if not installed or repaired correctly. Before you start work on a gas furnace, keep yourself well-informed of what to expect and how to handle the machine.
How Gas Furnaces Work
Gas furnaces usually run on natural gas piped into the home from a utility company. If the home doesn’t have natural gas hookups, the fuel will likely be propane from specialized tanks. A propane provider will periodically visit the home to refill the tank and keep the heater running.
Propane typically enters a furnace gas valve at a maximum of 11 inches of water gauge pressure as measured by the proper manometer. Once the propane furnace is running, the actual manifold pressure is usually about 10 inches. Natural gas pressure tends to be about the same amount, averaging about 10.5 inches at the entry point. However, when the furnace is running, the manifold pressure of natural gas will drop to about 3.5 inches of water. Check the nameplate on the furnace to determine which pressure level you should be seeing.
If you take a look at a gas furnace, you’ll see the box is maybe 4-5 ft. long and contains a fan and the furnace itself. One end connects to the duct coming from the filter grill. The other end of the furnace connects to the AC evaporator coil. The fan pulls air from the air filter and, if the furnace is running, it warms the air below and sends it along the ductwork throughout the house. Since the heated air passes through the evaporator coil, it’s just as important to keep the AC coil clean in the winter as it is during the summer. A dirty evaporator coil can cause a furnace to overheat and pose a fire hazard.
A gas furnace and its accompanying flue pipe also requires open space around it (typically 30 inches) to keep them both away from potentially flammable objects. This is especially important for the flue pipe since, even with its double-walled material, it can still get very hot. As the exhaust pipe of the gas heater, the flue handles a lot of hot air. The pipe’s sealant must be sturdy to keep hazardous gases such as carbon monoxide from escaping, and the pipe must never be closer than 1 inch to wood or flammable materials or it poses a significant fire hazard.
A properly installed gas heater connects to the thermostat and waits for the signal to turn on. The thermostat receives 24 volts from the red T stat wire and sends the power to the furnace through a white wire, which activates the furnace. The furnace sparks the gas inside to create heat and begin warming the whole house.
Pro Tip: Propane and natural gas furnaces are designed for very specific and very different fuel sources. NEVER try to run a propane furnace with natural gas or vice versa! The differences in pressure will lead to severe problems.
Running a Gas Furnace
When installed correctly, a gas furnace runs like this:
- The combustion fan motor, a special fan that pushes or pulls air through the fire box, activates for about 30 seconds. Any raw gas in the sparking area is flushed out through the roof. A small pressure switch connected to this fan tells the thermostat the fan is running. Once the thermostat gets the signal from the switch that the purge fan is on and has run for 30 seconds without a problem, the next step begins.
- The thermostat checks that all the safety switches are in the proper open or closed positions. Located in several places on the furnaces, these switches detect overheating or other potential dangers. If these switches are in the proper position, the thermostat keeps moving forward.
- The thermostat sends power to the hot surface igniter until it glows red hot. If you have a spark igniter furnace, this is when it starts sparking. The thermostat can even tell if the hot surface igniter is hot or not by measuring how much resistance it gives the electricity.
- Now that the furnace has a spark or red hot igniter, it opens the gas valve and lets in a little gas. As the gas travels past either the sparker or the hot surface igniter, it lights.
- Using a flame sensor, the thermostat verifies that the gas ignited safely.
- The thermostat then activates the main gas and lights the main burners. Now the furnace is fully in heating mode with up to 100,000 BTUs of heat being created.
- Finally, the thermostat turns on the main house fan and start blowing the heated air all around the house. Eventually, the temperature will reach the maximum specified by the homeowner and the thermostat will deactivate the heater. If the thermostat sense any problems or potential dangers, it will immediately deactivate both the heater and gas and potentially place both into lockout mode to prevent an accident.
Troubleshooting a Gas Furnace
One important step in troubleshooting a gas furnace is to pay attention to the circuit card, a computer card inside the thermostat. A diagnostic light on the card will flash at a certain rate to indicate the necessary repairs. Always take note of the flash rate in case you have to reset the light–this is valuable information that helps you determine the problem.
To diagnose the issue, try to ignite the furnace and watch each step as it happens. As soon as you notice the furnace faltering on a particular step, you’ve discovered the potential source of the problem. Work from there to find the answer.
Pay attention to the flue pipe as well. An older, less efficient furnace will likely have a flue pipe that tends to stay very hot and very dry, since about 20% of the generated heat was wasted through exhaust fumes. However, newer high-efficiency furnaces will waste far less heat (to the point that plastic piping is often safe to use for their flues) and thus may allow moisture to collect in the flue pipe. The furnace then collects and disposes of the moisture. These kinds of furnaces are called condensing furnaces. Check your manual and manufacturer’s recommendations to determine the proper type of flue pipe for each heater.
The length of the flue pipe is also important. Calculate the length of pipe extending outside the home based on the roof’s pitch and the manufacturer’s recommendation. If you overcompensate and make the extension far too long, you run the risk of the pipe breaking off in high winds and allowing deadly exhaust gases back into the home. Support the flue pipe very firmly and never make the exhaust portion too long. When the life of your client is in your hands, it’s better to be overly cautious than to just meet minimum standards.
A client’s air filter might also be a cause for concern. To see if the filter is causing the problem, watch the flame in the furnace. A normal furnace flame is bright blue. Any yellow flames indicate incomplete combustion caused by poor air flow through a dirty filter. This is a serious condition that you must address immediately. Until the flame is blue again, the problem is not resolved.
Finally, do you have all the tools necessary to work on gas furnaces? Check your HVAC supplies and make sure you own all of the following equipment:
- Gas pressure tester
- Combustion analyzer
- 3 amp fuses
Above all, remember that while trial and error is typically a legitimate way to learn, it is drastically unsafe to experiment with gas heaters. Even the slightest mistake could lead to potentially deadly consequences for the homeowners. Never take a guess or try to figure out something unfamiliar on your own. Consult an expert or the manufacturer when necessary. An abundance of caution is far better than rushing a job and making a dangerous mistake.
Providing Excellent Work to your Clients
Working on a gas heat furnace presents its own set of challenges that an electrical system won’t have. Fortunately, with the right amount of study and hands-on practice with both kinds of heating systems, you’ll be well-prepared to help your clients keep their homes warm this winter.
Connect with us to learn how to jump-start your new HVAC career!